Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Conflict Resolution Child Custody As a future marital and family therapist and even as a trainee, it is important to understand the systemic thinking behind the practice. For those therapists, like myself, that want to become experts in more an area, it is also important to delve into the theory and practice of that area. For example, child custody is a big piece to conflict resolution when it comes to thinking systemically in the family. The current divorce rate is around 50 percent and ever rising, which can be troubling yet promising when it comes to the mediation field. For the judicial system, this causes case overload, tired workers, and a lot of fees for the citizens going to the family courts. One of the biggest things that could potentially stop a family from being happy with their results is if the courts assign them custody agreements without thinking about each individual factor. Each family is different and there is no cookie cutter answer when it comes to child custody. If the family is assigned a family mediator, not only will it save long term costs, it can help ensure each party feels heard and they are voluntarily agreeing to the terms. Reasoning for Choosing Topic When assigned this paper, I had no idea what to write about, since the conflict resolution is so broad. But I sat down and thought about why I decided to take this class and why I wanted to get my mediation certificate. As I said in class, I have seen really poor mediation, I have seenShow MoreRelated`` Popular Mechanics `` By Raymond Carver1617 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesintroduction of the characters, setting, and plot. The short story has a face paced touch, which moves quickly towards the climax and released the resolution right after. The short story was narrated in third person in order to reveal the actions and the dialogue between a man and a woman which expressed separation, struggle, miscommunication, and conflict between the couple. In the beginning of the short story there was already a sense of separation between the couple through how the husband or boyfriendRead MoreCross-Cultural Mediation Essay2091 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagescross-cultural conflict scenario in which a medi ator must apply the appropriate skills to resolve the conflict. In order to resolve these types of conflicts mediators must apply a non-bias approach to the conflict because the mediator must perceive and identify the cultural differences in order to appropriately resolve the conflict. The mediator must facilitate communication, and they must invoke trust with the disputants for successful cross-cultural conflict resolution. The conflict discussed inRead MoreThe Divorce Of Chicago Divorce1252 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrepresent an individual in family court. The assistance of other professionals may also become necessary. For example, if custody or visitation is contested, the court may appoint a Guardian ad Litem to conduct an investigation. Guardians charge hourly for their services as well, and the parties are responsible for these costs. Should the services of forensic accountants, child psychologists, or other professionals become necessary to resolve certain issues, the parties are also responsible for thoseRead MoreContext and History of Conflict Paper1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Context and History of Conflict Paper This essay will discuss the issues between two people, Robert and Denise Patton, along with how these issues affect their two children. To enable an understanding of the problem a summary of the nature and history of the conflict has been given. In addition, a look at the interaction of interests, goals, and the power of each party allows an understanding of each personÃ¢â¬â¢s position and role in the conflict as well as personal attempts at resolution of the problem. InRead MoreMovie Analysis : Mrs. Doubtfire1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesrequested a divorce from the husband (Daniel) and has denied him custody of their three children (Lydia, Chris, and Natalie). In response, the husband chooses to dress up as an elderly woman and is hired as the housekeeper and childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s nanny (Mrs. Doubtfire). The film portrays divorce using a comedic element. After the Mrs. Doubtfire is revealed to be the husband in disguise the mother petitions the court and is granted full custody. However , the children do not adjust to this change well. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreA Brief Note On Alternative Dispute Resolution And Other Forms Of Helping Professions1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAlternative Dispute Resolution Conflict resolution is used in various aspects of counseling and other forms of helping professions. It is vital that conflicts between opposing parties are managed in order for progress to be achieved. By maintaining a controlled environment during the negotiation process, the two parties will often be able to come to a resolution of their differences. Sometimes it can be difficult for two parties to work together without the help of a third party to assist in theRead MoreThe Code And The Deontological Decision Making Model962 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesprovided, and resolve the ethical dilemma. The ethical dilemma in this case involves a 6-year-old child who was diagnosed with meningitis. The divorced parents are of different religious beliefs, and have differing opinions regarding treatment. The ethical problems are multifaceted. The author of this paper believes the primary ethical prototype is the ethical dilemma of whether or not to treat the child. Defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a situation that involves two (or more) morally correct courses of action that cannotRead MoreSelf Reflection Paper On Conflict1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA conflict that I have chose to write about is from one of my own experiences. Suchlike, my parentÃ¢â¬â¢s divorce in the year of 2007. I have chosen to write about this topic because I was in the middle of the dispute, therefore I know all components of the conflict. If I would have chosen a historical event at a different level, it is possible that I would not know all the details or possibly confuse part of the facts. I would not say writing about my o wn conflict is any easier because there are stillRead MoreLearning From Conflict Is The Best Of All Experiences1630 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the words of Alexa Rosa, Ã¢â¬Å"learning from conflict is the best of all experiences. It brings out the true shine in our souls.Ã¢â¬ This quote to me is the best way to explain how the mediations in this course have shaped me in becoming a better mediator. There are things I had to overcome in this course and those are, being nervous, not being as confident as I should, and being able to go more in depth in a situation you have never faced to find a solution that fits both parties. I would like toRead MoreA Separate Juvenile Justice System1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswith delinquency, such as poor school performance or lack of conflict resolution skills. There are many ways in which problems related to juveniles and delinquency may come to the attention of the community 1. RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations are made for a more purposeful juvenile justice system. 1. Collective responsibility There is a duty on everyone to ensure the proper development, the promotion and protection and welfare of the child. This function should not and must not be left to a group of
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
In England, clashes between Catholics and Protestants, brought upon by the establishment of the Church of England in 1531 by King Henry VIII, placed many in complete disarray. The Separatist, befittingly termed, were a group of puritans sought out an escape from the institutionalize corruption and rituals practiced by both faiths. They believed solely in the authority of the Bible, and viewed unfounded rituals and means to reach salvation as corrupt. They also believed in society holistically, covenants between God and His people, hierarchy and inequality, and most of all the idea of predestination. Predestination was the idea that suggested that Salvation was already determined by God, and there is nothing one can do to alter that and the Puritans believed that they were the select few of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children that were chosen for salvation. Puritan beliefs were unconventional, not generally accepted and deemed illegal in some parts of England, which was attributable to the power held by the Church of England imposed upon by the English Reformation. Thus in pursuit of religious freedom, the Puritan saw the New World as prospective haven to live and prosper in their way of life. The first of the Puritans to go to the New World were the Pilgrims, who were of lower middle class to middle class status and one of the most zealous of the Puritans that wanted to set up a Utopia guided by Puritan principles and practices. With the consent of the Crown, the Pilgrims sailed on the Mayflower and landed on Plymouth. Many more Migrated in the decades followed, known as the Great Puritan Migration. The drive to the migration and colonization of the New England were primarily religious based from the aftermaths of the Reformation, not for onetary benefits in the outlook of both the Crown of England and the separatist themselves. Thus, unlike Jamestown, the Puritans went there to stay and thrive. In order to do so, the majority of them migrated there in family units with equal number of men and women. The Reformation cause the most religiously enthusiastic of the puritans to come to New World, consequently, a strong linkage between religion and society was eminent. The dis tinction between church and state was little. Only male church members were allowed to cast votes in political venues. Religion played a role in every aspect in the lives of the Puritans in the New England colonies. The covenants were a firm belief among them in which the actions of one person reflected the actions of the entire community. Therefore, little privacy was a conventional norm that they lived by and there was little religious freedom in the New England colonies. Distinctive from the New England colonies, the establishment of the Middle colonies and the Carolinas were predominantly inspired, during the Restoration, to gain an economic advantage for the British Empire. King CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ II rise to the throne gave way to the charter of the Middle colonies and Carolinas in which he contributed to his loyal collaborators. He took it as an opportunity to reestablish the connection with the English colonies and make Great Britain a true empire to be reckoned with. He enacted the Navigation Laws that entailed colonies can trade only with English ships, some items could be shipped only on English ships, all goods had to pass through England to pay taxes before being shipped to America, and to safeguard against invasion. Navigation acts were part of the ideology of Ã¢â¬Å"mercantilism which is a collection of policies designed to keep Great Britain Prosperous through economic regulation. Ã¢â¬ These policies encouraged the colonies to be self-sufficient in both agriculture and manufacture, the desire of precious metals, more exports than imports, sea power to control foreign markets, strong states to enforce policies, and many other like it. . At the expense of the English colonies, the employment of mercantilist policies permitted the British Empire to prosper in wealth and power. Although religion wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a major incentive in the formation of the Restoration colonies as it was in the New England colonies, it still played a major role in the types of people that migrated to there. Maryland, founded by Lord Baltimore, served as a refuge for Catholics. Nonetheless, Catholics eventually lost control due the influx of other religious groups. Pennsylvania, in the other hand, served as a refuge for the Quakers, who sought out the New World to avoid further persecution for their beliefs in England. Their beliefs were extremely unconventional in regards to the dogmas of the time. For instance, they believed God speaks to one and all through inner light including women, equality for all, challenge the idea of hierarchy, were against slavery, were pacifist, and were very tolerant and liberal minded. The implementation of mercantilist policies as a result of the Restoration, promoted self-sustained economy in the colonies. As a result, rice, cotton, and indigo harvesting were a prominent export in the Carolinas. This booming agricultural economy required hard intensive labor and a huge workforce and the exploitations of indentured servants and slaves was the solution. The employment of slaves and indentured servants allowed the South to have thriving economy and its own developing cultured that differed from the North. Although the economic powerhouse introduced by the Mercantilist policies that rose from the Restoration impacted all the English colonies and religious freedom was a driving force for most of the colonist, British Empire endorsed the formation of the Middle Colonies and the Carolinas with a primary goal in mind, gained economic advantage, whereas before during the formation of New England colonies, gaining an economic benefit was not much of a concern. Short Answers (5 points each) 12. What were slave codes and what were they intended to do? A series of laws passed mainly in the Southern colonies in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries to defend the status of slaves and codify the denial of basic civil rights to them. These codes give absolute power to slave owners over the African slaves. Slaves did not have the rights to form a family for it would cause problems for owners when having to separate them. Ã¢â¬Å"Slave codes made it illegal to teach slave children to read; Africans ere not allowed to carry arms or ammunition; children were descended from mothers instead of fathers in order to keep children of slaves enslaved; free women who married slaves were forced to serve the slaves masters and their children became slaves; servants brought into the country who were not Christians were to be enslaved (this included Negroes, mulattoes, and Indians), but eventual baptism into the Christian faith failed to alter a sla ves status. Finally, if a slave resisted his master and the slave was killed, the master was pardoned for the crime of killing his servant. Ã¢â¬ 13. What are some of the reasons for the Salem witch trials? How did the reasons for the trials demonstrate the problems that threatened Puritan New England during the late seventeenth century? How was Hester Prynne, the main character ofÃ The Scarlet Letter, an example of this threat? Many reasons contributed to the mass hysteria of the Salem witch trials. Young accusers bored with bible study, a growing immigrant population with secular motives, and fears of natives wanting revenge. Members of the community were losing their religious values and shifted their interests to trade and commerce. Hester Prynne is an example of how a society trying to hold on to their values, sets an example of an individuals to deter others from doing the same Ã¢â¬Å"crimes. Ã¢â¬ 14. What were the Navigation Acts? How did they attempt to tie the American colonies to England? The Navigation Acts were part of mercantilism which is a set of imperialistic policies that allowed for British Empire to economically prosper. The Navigation Acts restored the linkage between the English colonies and England by placing trading limitations on the colonies so that the British Empire can rake in the benefits at the expense of the English colonies. These policies stated that Ã¢â¬Å"colonies could trade exclusively to English ships, some items can be shipped only on English ships, All goods had to pass through England to pay taxes before being shipped to America, and policies were established in 1666 to safeguard against invasion. Ã¢â¬ 15. What influence did the Quaker population have on the development of Pennsylvania? Pennsylvania served as a refuge for the Quakers, who sought out the New World to avoid further persecution for their beliefs in England. Their beliefs were extremely unconventional in regards to the dogmas of the time. For instance, they believed God speaks to one and all through inner light including women, equality for all, challenge the idea of hierarchy, were against slavery, were pacifist, and were very tolerant and liberal minded. They also believed that it was wrong to take land from the Indians without payment. For their beliefs, Pennsylvania was a mecca for religious tolerance, equality among all including slaves and women, among other things. 16. Who was Anne Hutchinson? How did she present a challenge to Puritan New England? Anne Hutchinson was a ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter born in England who followed her minister, John Colton, to Puritan New England. She started holding her own Bible studies and prayer meetings in her place, which was highly unconventional especially for a women being that ministers had the critical religious authority. Her gatherings became extremely popular among both men and women around the colony. They started to consider her a prophet that spoke directly to God to spread the message among the community. After a while, she started criticizing the New England Preachers about their teachings of salvation among others. She was arrested and put on trial and then to exile to Rhode Island for falsely claiming to be a prophet.
Saturday, April 18, 2020
Romeo and Juliet: English Coursework Essay Example Paper Romeo and Juliet: English Coursework Essay Introduction So far we know the whole story because of the prologue at the start of the play. However, due to the tragic nature of the play and its background, the audience would forget this and believe that the play would change. Both of the Ã¢â¬Å"star-crossed loversÃ¢â¬ havenÃ¢â¬â¢t met each other, yet. And their families, the Montagues and Capulets are in an on-going rivalry which makes it almost impossible for Romeo and Juliet to even meet, let alone fall in love. It is these obstacles, and the main themes of destiny and love, revenge and conflict.Just before Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio enter the ball, Romeo begins a soliloquy. He uses poetic language, a type of speech that differs between the characters throughout the scene and the play. Poetic language is used for characters that have a point to emphasise to the audience. Added along with the soliloquy, this allows the audience to focus solely on what Romeo says, and is a sign to say that whatever he talks about is important.ItÃ¢â¬â ¢s a line that should not be ignored, and is used by the most passionate characters like Romeo and Tybalt. In this soliloquy, Romeo speaks of death. In fact, he tells the audience that his own death will come just by entering the ball. However, he also says that his fate is in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s hands Ã¢â¬Å"But he who hath steerage of my course Direct my sail!Ã¢â¬ This last line creates a feeling of mystery among the audience what will his fate be when he enters the ball? It also sets up tension for the next scene.As soon as Romeo and his friends enter the Capulet ball, the tension that was created from RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s soliloquy has died down. The first parts of this scene are dominated by servants at the ball. The comical lines from the servants start to lower the tension. One moment the play is serious, next moment itÃ¢â¬â¢s very jolly. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s times, this comical section of the play would be used to get the audience back into the play. This was done, because most of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s audience wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t educated very well, so they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t fully understand the play. After the servantÃ¢â¬â¢s comic contribution, the audience hears a pointless speech from a character known as Capulet.The speech from a seemingly drunk Capulet is quickly followed by RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s first sight of Juliet. This is a quick peak of tension which happens a lot throughout the play. In the Marco Zefferelli film version of Romeo and Juliet, a very soft and romantic song is sung in the background to set the scene for the meeting. Another interesting technique in this film used to describe the event is a dancing circle with many party guests including Romeo and Juliet.The circle represents the inevitability of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting with Juliet. He starts to describe her beauty in great detail, using his poetic language again. This means that itÃ¢â¬â¢s another important piece of speech. The large amount of emphasis on JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s beauty is used by Shake speare because of the time period the play was set in. Only men would be able to act on the stage, so the male version of Juliet wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t look very appealing to many in the audience and they would be confused as to why Romeo wants Juliet.Phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"Beauty too rich for use, for earth too dearÃ¢â¬ mean that Romeo sees Juliet in some sort of divine way. She isnÃ¢â¬â¢t of this world. The question Ã¢â¬Å"Did my heart never love till now?.never saw beauty till this nightÃ¢â¬ is important because it shows the audience the distinction between the love Romeo now has for Juliet and the lust that Romeo had for Rosaline. The way that Romeo delivers these lines to the audience in both film adaptations of Romeo and Juliet, the amount of conviction shown in his movements, facial expressions and speech is more than enough to tell the audience that this is true love.Soon after RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s first sighting of Juliet, the audience sees Tybalt and Capulet engage in an argume nt over Romeo. From the previous scenes with Tybalt, itÃ¢â¬â¢s known that he has a temper and hates the Montague family (and those associated with them) with a fiery passion. He first warns Capulet that Romeo is at the Capulet Ball. In his first few lines, he mentions killing Romeo. Because he has come to the enemyÃ¢â¬â¢s party, Tybalt sees it as an invasion, an insult to his name and what it stands for, Ã¢â¬Å"by the stock and honour of my kin.not a sinÃ¢â¬ . However, Capulet doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t believe that Romeo has any ill intentions against his family at the Ball, Ã¢â¬Å"A bears him like a portly gentlemanÃ¢â¬ . Capulet (seemingly) takes control of the situation with his plea, but this angers Tybalt more.He says Ã¢â¬Å"I will not endure himÃ¢â¬ . He cannot stand for Romeo to be here any longer, his rage begins to show even more in his short, yet, strong response to Capulet. The reply to Tybalt is what infuriates him the most. Ã¢â¬Å"You are a saucy boy!Ã¢â¬ In previous scenes, Tybalt has proven that heÃ¢â¬â¢s a reckless, angry young man. He likes to maintain his bad boy image. For example, his demeanour in Baz LuerrmanÃ¢â¬â¢s version of Romeo and Juliet is very suave. In the opening fighting scene, a conversation between himself and Benvolio leads to a huge fight. However, one of the most important things he said in an angry tone of voice was Ã¢â¬Å"Peace.I hate the wordÃ¢â¬ . So from his reckless actions, forceful angry voice, and choice of words, the audience can see that Tybalt is belligerence and hot-headedness is very strong. He has convinced himself that he is a man, therefore is.Back to Capulet, he continues to verbally attack Tybalt. In both film adaptations, CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s voice becomes less gleeful and more serious. He begins to play a more paternal role towards Tybalt in this scene. Insults such as Ã¢â¬Å"You are a princox (insolent young man)Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"goodman boy (unmannerly child) are what Tybalt does like to be addre ssed as. The last and most important section to this argument is what he says to the audience. Ã¢â¬Å"Patience perforce with.greetingÃ¢â¬ is Tybalt expressing his emotions. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that fact that he can do nothing to his greatest enemy inside his own house because of CapuletÃ¢â¬â¢s orders. The rhyming here is important to address the audience. Ã¢â¬Å"I will withdraw.bitter gallÃ¢â¬ , continues to explain how Tybalt feels. He continues to say he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t fight with Romeo right now, but eventually he will. Ã¢â¬Å"Sweet convert to bitter gallÃ¢â¬ means that however nice it is to have more of a reason to kill Romeo, the patience he must have to get Romeo will not be good for him.He does lot of important things with the play with these four lines. Firstly, he sets up more tension and makes the audience ask more questions, Ã¢â¬Å"When is Tybalt going to face off with RomeoÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"How?Ã¢â¬ etc. Secondly, he makes sure that the audience gets the messa ge. His sudden shift to poetic language and using rhyming couplets is a stand out point to say Ã¢â¬Å"This is importantÃ¢â¬ . And it shows the passion of the character as well, Tybalt had a passion to exact his revenge on Romeo and the audience can hear it through the little rhyme.Romeo and JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting is made even more interesting by ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s use of a sonnet (a 14 line poem, in a 4-4-4-2 layout). The factors that make this so interesting and very powerful as a romantic scene are as follows. Firstly, the back and forth motion of speech. They both recite the sonnet, with a flow that adds more tension to this scene. The main theme of fate is very important here, as thereÃ¢â¬â¢s a definite connection. The flow that these two have makes it seem as if they are one person speaking directly to the audience, they were meant to be together. Secondly, the convictions of RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s speech and slight role play from both characters.The way he address Juliet, treat ing her as a holy object, a shrine. Evidence of this is in the lines, Ã¢â¬Å"If I profane with my unworthy handÃ¢â¬ , and referring to Juliet as a Ã¢â¬Å"holy shrineÃ¢â¬ . He is deep in love with her, and he is chasing her. In addition to the previous points, the sonnet helps to make the audience see the side of Juliet that is playful, cheerful and what makes her so attractive to Juliet. In the Baz Luerrman film version of Romeo and Juliet, JulietÃ¢â¬â¢s personality is very flirtatious, almost tempting Romeo even more with every word she says, as if RomeoÃ¢â¬â¢s life hanged on every word that came from Juliet. The written script is just the same, Romeo chasing the girl he desires, the he loves.As the storyline continues after the Capulet Ball, we are carried straight into the balcony scene. Romeo starts by using poetic language in relation to how in love he is with Juliet. Conversely, Juliet is doing the same but she wonders about Romeo and if she is really to love him fully . In the modernised film version of Romeo and Juliet, both of them show passion in their voice relating to each other and expressing their love; using camera shots to show the individual characters when they use their own poetic language to emphasise the points that are made respectively. The amount of effort Romeo conveys in the usage of the language is also shown in the Baz Luerrman version of the film. It is made to be read as (and seen as) a testament to the love that Romeo has for Juliet; in terms of the danger that Romeo risks as being a Montague.At the end of the balcony scene, the storylines for the conflicts to come are set. Tybalt seeks revenge on Romeo for what he sees as an invasion of Ã¢â¬Å"hisÃ¢â¬ party, Juliet and Romeo plan to be engaged but still have to face the family rivalry barrier that prevents their relationship from being free. The next scenes will all highlight the conflicts and the tragedy aspect of the story Ã¢â¬â the common outline for stories such as Romeo and Juliet are : Setting the scene, introduce a catalyse for a change in the scene, highlight the changes from the catalyse and resolve the changes to re-establish the scene at the beginning.In terms of how we see the characters at this moment in time, Romeo is seen in the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s viewpoint as a heroic character, trying be the man, the protector, the Ã¢â¬Å"rockÃ¢â¬ for Juliet and personally believes that itÃ¢â¬â¢s fate that they are together and itÃ¢â¬â¢s fate for them to stay together and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the feeling that Romeo conveys to audience in the conviction of his words and the poetic language he uses when referring to, or directly addressing Juliet.The furious Tybalt in many retrospects can be seen as very similar to Romeo but plays the villain in this scenario. He doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to protect Juliet, he wants to protect his honour, his name and prove he is more than a Ã¢â¬Å"saucy boyÃ¢â¬ . He is convinced he is a man, and now needs to prove i t by carrying out his threats onto the Montagues and Romeo. The audience however sees exactly what the character called Capulet sees; Tybalt is nothing more than an angry boy who focuses too much on how others see him Ã¢â¬â almost shallow.In conclusion, at this stage of the play, Romeo and Juliet are caught in the middle of controversy, history and rivalry which allow for the readers to become enthralled in the storyline and makes for a successful written story, and a decently made film adaptation.I have examined the dramatic impact of the Capulet Ball scene and the Balcony scene and expressed how the characters and the language used together create some of the most important moments of the play. Romeo and Juliet: English Coursework Essay Thank you for reading this Sample!
Saturday, March 14, 2020
Poverty and Urbanization in Developing Nations Absolute poverty can be defined as a severe deprivation of basic human needs, such as food, safe drinking water, clothing, and shelter. Someone who is considered to be in absolute poverty has the minimum level of income to be able to barely satisfy the needs of basic human survival. A good example of someone living in absolute poverty is someone living in a makeshift community such as a slum or shanty-town. Relative poverty is being below some relative poverty threshold, such as a "poverty line." An example of relative poverty is when poverty is defined as households who earn less than 45% of the average income. As far as relative poverty goes, if everyone's income in an economy increases, but the income distribution stays the same, relative poverty will also stay the same.Economic growth can lead to reduction of poverty, and reduction of poverty can lead to economic growth.UrbanisationThey are complementary to each other. For example, a growing nation will be able to increase produc tion of the poor, which, in-turn can create more equitable distribution for the nation. This also works the other way around; a more equitable distribution can lead to increased production of the poor, which can lead to higher growth. Raising the income of the poor can enhance their ability to produce (Access to credit, education, etc). Raising the income of the poor also widens the domestic market and may lead to the diversification of the economy. A wider participation in the economy enhances economic growth and developmentThe rapid rate of urbanization in the developing countries is a problem. In an urbanizing nation, urban populations begin to grow very rapidly. There is natural growth and rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration occurs because people want to move to the urban cities for more jobs than a...
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Phantom of the Paradise as a Postmodern Horror - Essay Example The paper will lucidly look into some of the postmodernism aspect of films using the movie as the only reference. It will explain how the movie approaches traditional ideas in non-traditional ways. Some of the common features of postmodernism that have been portrayed in this movie are pastiche, metafiction, paranoia, maximalism, temporal distortion, and techno-culture and hyper-reality. To begin with, the character attire or dressing in the movie is quite different from what was there earlier on. The main character of the film has put on a metallic gown. Others, especially the women, in most of these movies we watch have their own dresses. Most of the dresses worn by women characters are those that that have a close relationship to that of the current American dressing. This is a clear implication that the existing American dressing codes came about as a result of such places. Moreover, the characters themselves. The metallic robe symbolically worn by Roderick Heath represents obedie nce to the law, as well as, protection of oneself. The different dressing models have led to the upcoming of different styles of making dressings in order to meet everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s expectations and desires. The current dressing system probably has its origin from the movie. The dressing is also symbolic on the counterculture nature of postmodern horror movies. The other aspect of the movie that brings to the light of the readers is about heroism in most horror movies. It is mainly found among men; however, hero is a woman. Heroes, in horror movies normally act as the main characters of the movies displaying their strengths of defeating a supernatural or extremely energetic character (antagonist). Using various expressive cinema techniques, the director has managed to show certain repeating devices such as scenes and most of the time the entire movie. The cinema techniques originated or evolved due to the issue of postmodernism. Postmodernism brought with itself certain learning, as well as, artistic techniques that affected the entire world of artists, especially on the horror movies (Foster 41). Another technique related to the above is the use of temporal distortion. The movieÃ¢â¬â¢s plot is not well organized with certain events overlapping. For instance, the appearance of Roderick Heath at the washroom where one of the music performers is taking a shower is a symbol intentional improper arrangement of the plot. Pastiche is another aspect found in films that have been affected by postmodernism. It refers to the imitation of certain or several works by other people or other genres of literature. Most of the events or characters in the movie have been imitated from other works of arts. The idea of Winslow becoming a terrorist and a killer of Swans is an imitation of certain works of history that have been saved in different historical materials. For instance, being a killer of another person has another meaning altogether and can be compared to past war ex periences such as world war II. Moreover, the image or the way the killing takes place is too simple and unbelievable to some extent. He stabbed him to death using a break of a bird mask from one of the dancers. This is a clear indication of the effects that technology has (Grant 76). Therefore, postmodernism is regarded as the epitome of all the recordings that are done seven today by highly respected printing and publishing houses. Postmodernism is the source of high technology that affects the reproduction of
Monday, February 10, 2020
Transit Oriented Development, Cheltenham Racecourse - Essay Example A new station will replace the old one and the location will be 200 meters from the present location moving south east. The new station will cater to the racecourse land which at present is not in use. The empty racecourse will be converted into a residential area of medium to high density population. The new station will be catering to a bigger area thus making the unused piece of land more alive. The proposal would include a children's playground and a pedestrian access to the train. Green space. with benches. that are arranged, would serve as the waiting area for the train commuters. A bicycle parking is also considered. Convenient stores are to be installed for a 24 hour services. A bus interchange coming from the Boulevards must be taken into consideration. Restrooms must be present in the area to encourage more commuters to use the station. Retail and commercial area would have a clear access from the Port road via Cheltenham Point and the residential area thereby, making it a friendly route thru a series of trees, landscape, walkable space with lushed trees that would serve as shade for walkers, thus bringing the site more closer and reachable making the area a site a more delightful place to live in. To meet the needs of the residents means providing them a safe and easily approachable setup thereby reducing their need to travel by cars. Creating a safe environment, is separating the rail line from the commercial and residential area with a screen of lined trees which will also reduce the noise that is generated by the traffic. There must be sufficient car parking and cycle parking near the retail area for the customers. In its zoning, the north side will be of mixed use and the south side is for retail, industrial and commercial purposes. There are major features of a Transit Oriented Development. These include the goals, and the mixed use of moderate to high density residential or commercial area, with close .proximity to public transport. It must be located with in 400 - 800 meter radius from the transit stop, and incorporates a design feature that encourages transit ridership, pedestrians and cyclists. In return, it would reduce car dependency, urban sprawl and traffic congestion that will assist in resolving global issues such as global warming and world oil depletion. Since Adelaide is one of the highest car dependent city in the world, transit oriented development will reduce the car dependency of the city. The reasons for car dependency is the lack efficient public transport and urban sprawl. Recent research had also shown that there is a strong link between the ease of use of public transport and the reduction of car dependency. Therefore, the low density suburbs and greater dispersion between employment reta il and service facilities make pedestrian accessibility and public transport less feasible. The key elements of TOD would be the mixed land use, pedestrian and cycling friendly design elements, and the convenience and efficiency of public transport system. These elements will contribute to the reduction of car usage. The methodology to be adopted in the implementation of TOD will be the reviewed literature on transit oriented development and the discussion of existing knowledge of the site. In the discussion of existing knowledge of the site, a review of current plans for site is necessary. Also included in the discussion is the examination of location of station with
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Comparison between Japanese and Canadian Central Bank Policies Essay The present paper is an investigation of the central bank policies in the countries of Japan and Canada. The paper takes into examination Bank of Japan and Bank of Canada and explores the grounds on which similarities and differences, if any, can be noted. This study is a comparison between the central banksÃ¢â¬â¢ policies of both the countries. The structure of the paper overviews the banking system of both the countries then furthers with individual analysis only to bring a major comparison at the second last section. The paper discusses findings in the conclusion section and makes recommendations for future policy making and development. 2- Overview This section overviews the past, present of the two banks in the concerned countries. This is in the attempt of creating a base of the later sections that would be dealing with specific policy issues of the two banks. 2.1- Japanese Banking System Today Japanese banking system finds its foundational roots in the aftermaths of World War II and is still continuing to grow support for the financial and industrial organizations of the country. Ever since World War II, Japanese banking system has gone through a number of changes and adaptations in corporate behavior as well as in the shaping of economic and regulatory policies. The period that can be said to be the golden time for the development of the Japanese banking system is regarded to be from the early 1950s to the early 1970s. This was the time when Japanese firms were growing rapidly and needed financial backing and monetary assessment to hold solid on the corporate grounds. However, from the 1970s, some changes were experienced by this banking system and that solid position was shaken. Of the major reasons, international paradigm change in financial transactions, corporate behavior with regard to investment of funds both internal and external, (firms started issuing securities rather than borrowing from banks) and other such reasons can be said to be the causes for the shaking of such a strong banking system as was in Japan once especial up to the early 1970s. Up to the present day, in the Japanese financial system, bank loans still possess the dominant place as the external financing source for the corporate sector which is non-financial Ã¢â¬â until 1986 the borrowings done from private institutions were recorded to be more than seventy percent. Other such common services as issuance of bonds, client monitoring, cost monitoring for different services, and so forth are also found to be in practice in the Japanese banking system. As such, there is much more that is needed to be examined in this countryÃ¢â¬â¢s banking system that makes it notable on the international horizon (Aoki, Patrick, Sheard, pp. 1-15, 1994). 2.2 Ã¢â¬â Canadian Banking System The central banking system of Canada is also with its typical issues and challenges and up to the present time, these challenges have been multiplying for a number of factors. For example, nowhere in history general public was so much conscious about the evil unemployment and is now showing a hyper attitude which simply put the government and its financial institutions up front to the criticism. As such, the challenges are to make such financial policies as can help confront these challenges and move over them. Although the central bank of Canada did go through a long period of adjustments, say the depression period of the 1930s and later, Neufeld (1958) notes that Ã¢â¬Å"The constitutional adjustments experienced by the Bank of Canada were not as great as those of some older central banksÃ¢â¬ (p. 4). There are noteworthy reasons for this observation. For instance, beginning in the market, the bank was sponsored by the government leading to a stable position. However, political interventions and the bankÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibilities to cater for the needs or demands of the political party government continued to exist. The bank went through war crisis, financial instability, and social pressures like unemployment, all along its birth becoming an adult from an immature youth. At present the Bank is in a more favorable position to serve for the purposes of the government and perform its multifarious purposes with regard to financial activities along with the challenges. Some of the challenges that the bank faced during its stability periods were Ã¢â¬Å"serious foreign exchange outflows and phenomenal capital inflowsÃ¢â¬ (212). The three areas, back in the stability phase, i.e., bond market, stock exchanges, and foreign exchange markets, have been tactfully established by the bank to create a positive picture of the overall economic situation of the country. Presently, the Bank holds a primary position in the decision making process of these three areas. Today, as a successful bank, the expert opinion about this bank is that it has dealt in the time of difficulty more with technique which was versatile than conservatism (213). The banking system of Canada is in a constant process of up gradation for better output; one such instance is the use of geographic information systems (GIS) technology Ã¢â¬Å"for a wide range of applicationsÃ¢â¬ (Macdonald, 2001, p. 419). Therefore, it is important to have a deep examination of the policies and practices of this bank so that the insiderÃ¢â¬â¢s view can help others form such a system in any other country. 3-Policies of the Bank of Japan There are a number of policy issues that need to be revisited but for the limited space of the paper, only a few major are discussed. First of all, policies of the Bank of Japan (BOJ) have been central to criticsÃ¢â¬â¢ attention due to a number of reasons but the most important is that it is one of the three G-3 central banks that have been reviewed in the past decades. The special features of BOJ are numerous. The most apparent, however, is its stance on deflation. Although BOJ was forced to take Ã¢â¬Å"a highly leveraged positionÃ¢â¬ in local financial environment, it has taken no risk to fight the challenge. Moreover, it might have been possible for the bank to give in to a number of challenges that were created by deflation, however, the bank continued to survive with a number of different policies and measures (Cargill, 2005, p. 311). BOJÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to monetary policy is pragmatic. The overall focus of this monetary policy is to maintain stability in price and encourage economic development. To meet these ends, the Bank monitors such areas as exchange rates, the aggregates of money, the indices of consumer and wholesale rates, growth of the GDP, production taking place in the industry, on-going interest rate in the market, prices of assets, and a number of other factors. It is also notable that in the functions of the Bank, international policy association and coordination can also play a role in the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s domestic policy making. It is important to note that throughout its existence the BOJ has never come to stand as hardcore monetarist. Instead of this, the Bank has been treating the policy making of money more like a form of art. There are a number of methods by which the Bank lets its policies become public. The implementation of policies also takes a number of forms, for instance, Ã¢â¬Å"discoun t windowÃ¢â¬ guides other financial institutions through loans etc. (Miller, 1996, pp. 1-47). By the late 1980s, BOJ held its position as positive in the eyes of the critics due to a number of policy making issues since WWII. Up to then the bank had gone through a number of remarkably shaky times coping up with such challenges as industrialization and establishment of it. By that time major characteristics of BOJ were its commitment to price stability and positive outcomes that came out of its policies. The most important point is that since its establishment, its legal position did not go through a change. Then it was the only bank rated as the most dependent of all the central banks in the world. Hence the notable feature is its keeping price stability instead of being a dependent bank. It also contradicted the widely acclaimed view that the more independent a central bank, the more price stability would be extended (Cargill, 2005, p. 311). Ã May 1989 is the period called the low point policy period of BOJ which continued through the year 2004. Here the bank increased the rate of discount in a number of steps that included historically low rate of 2.5 percent to 6.0 in the first stage of 1991. It was sternly a reaction against the asset inflation of the 1980s. However, the sharp recession and diminishing asset rate backed the bank to move for ease of policy in 1991 and the call and discount rates came down to 0.05 percent by the early 1995. Until it obtained the first Ã¢â¬Å"0 rate of interestÃ¢â¬ policy in 1999, the bank went on lowering call rate discount. It was drawn to a close in 2000. It came back to zero rate policy again in 2000 and moved on to a statistical easing down of policy in 2001 because declining economy alerted the authorities; moreover, it needed to adopt a different framework of operation for short-term rates on interest which had to be fundamentally zero (Cargill, 2005, p. 311). Although internationally, it is the reputation of the Bank of Japan that it has been moving too gradually in terms of the formation of monetary policy, fiscal policies, and resolving the issues present to it, there are important areas where this criticism becomes void. For example, Japan is often compared with the USA without considering the fact that former faced a great many more problems than the latter. Additionally, there are such instances as JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s tighter economic policy in 1996 that has much to discard this criticism (Browne, 2001, p. 3). 4- Policies of the Bank of Canada The Bank of Canada (BOC) is often criticized for influencing the level of price, jobs, and the development of its countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. However, in the recent years the Bank has acquired a reputation that it is very concerned with keeping the inflation rate low so that it can make other ends meet for broader goals of economy. The Bank has also been charged with its acute concerns to inflation rate only and looking over such challenges as unemployment and economic growth. However, there are proponents of the BankÃ¢â¬â¢s policies who come forward to defend the policies of the bank as they are presently in practice stating that if the focus of the Bank shift to the vice versa perspective, there would be no growth in economy and inflation rate will increase causing devaluation of the dollar. Vanderhart (2003) conducted an in-depth analysis of BOCÃ¢â¬â¢s response to inflation rate and other such concerns as unemployment, growth of economy, and other factors. The author found that there is insufficient evidence to suggest that the Bank of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s response to economic data available on inflation is direct, Ã¢â¬Å"inflationary precursors as raw materials and intermediate goods prices are only significant when other important factors are omittedÃ¢â¬ (p. 357). But the author does not make it a remark that the Bank does not follow the procedures to pursue anti-inflationary policy. What the BOC has successfully achieved with regard to keeping control over inflation is that it responds to those factors which are other than Ã¢â¬Å"the releases of price level dataÃ¢â¬ . Moreover, the recent policies also prompt to the suggestion that the Bank is taking measure to fight the challenge of unemployment. Two factors also came up to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s analysis that determined the actions and responses of the BOC. These are exchange rates and federal fund rate. The bottom line that the author draws is the there is little doubt about the health of the Canadian economy and the BOC is actively involved in the process of keeping this health stable. However, if some out-of-Canada issues are present, there may be some criticism on the Bank for example, its interconnection with the U.S. monetary policy because there are voices that might want a Canada which is independent of U.S. related economic policies (Vanderhart, 2003). If we review comparative analysis of Canadian economic growth with other countries (say Australia), there is sufficient evidence to mark the above observation that the Canadian economy has grown stronger than before and that such challenges as labor utilization has been carefully handled in the favor of the country. Harchaoui, et al. tell us that the growth of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s real average income has large credit to a magnificent improvement in the way labor has been utilized, i.e. Ã¢â¬Å"the combination of high average hours worked and a high rate of employment in the total populationÃ¢â¬ . In addition to this, capital deepening effect has also played an important role in the present stability of the Canadian financial outlook (Harchaoui, et al., 2005, p. 36). 5- Bank of Japan and Bank of Canada Comparing the policies of the central banks of Japan and Canada each gives us more insight. There are a few studies that have been done on the comparative analysis. In one such study, Tomljanovich (2007) informs that the central banks of these two countries (including banks of other countries, as well) are on a constant pursuit of having open dialogue with the general public and this is in the efforts of increasing efficiency and reducing volatility in financial markets. In the case of Canada, which comes in the category of a majority of interest rate maturities, it is found that there is greater predictability in terms of market functions because there is a high flow of information to Canada and this flow coincides with sub-periods simultaneously to lower interest volatility rate. However, Japan (as well as Germany in this study) appears to be the only country in which there is no such evidence of lower interest volatility. Moreover the study shows that the central Bank of Japan and the central Bank of Canada both moved to greater transparency measures in the 1990s which shows that both these banks want to progress on the modern lines (p. 791). As for the policies of Canadian central bank, it is evident that there is inclination of these policies to those of the U.S. There is no doubt that Bank of Canada has greater interests in keeping these ties with the financial environment of the U.S. monetary and fiscal policies. However, Bank of Japan has stood on a very different turf that is of independence with dependence and of unique regulatory framework of all policies handled ever since World War II. There is no doubt that government like Canada and Quebec recognize China and Japan for their strategic partnership in the region of Asia. For this the credit goes to Japanese ever-growing economic curve which in turn holds credit for the policies that the central banking system of Japan for a long time formulated, ran, and implemented successfully (Inomata, 2002, p. 259). 6- Conclusion Examination of the policies of central Bank of Japan and the central Bank of Canada in detail reveal that both countries have to face challenges that emerge from their specific environment. There are similarities and differences in the approaches of the Banks of both the countries. One acute similarity is that both countries have moved to greater transparency and are considered successful banks on the international horizon. Another is that Banks of both these countries are focusing more on interest rate and inflation level stability. For this purpose, however, the approaches of the two banks are different; both are putting efforts to fight the challenge of unemployment. As for the differences, Japanese bank is legally dependent, whereas, Canadian bank is independent; yet there is this sharp observation that Bank of Canada looks at the U.S. financial environment for policy making, whereas, Japanese Bank looks at its own typical challenges that need to be tackled on the international f ront. Another important thing which comes out from this study of the two banking systems in two different countries is that both function in their own environment and that it is not possible to find acute similarities in both the systems because of different financial and social outlook of the countries. This is important to look into more details in these central banks and banks of other countries as well so that a sound analysis about policy making and other measure against present and upcoming challenges can be met.